Marketing Concepts

Foreward by Prof. Jerry Gana
Preface by Senator J. M. Kuye
Financial Environment
Public Finance
Financial Institutions
Public Relations Concepts
Financial Public Relations
Marketing Concepts
Advertising and Integrated Communication
In-House and Consultancy
Target Publics
Research in PR
Budgeting in PR
Planning in PR
Regulating Financial Information
Getting Started and PR Unit
Basic Functions
Requirement for Media Event
Annual Events
Social Responsibility
Information Technology
Reputation Management
Crises Management
Media of FPR
Corporate Identification
Building Brand
Membership of Professional Bodies
Conduct and Ethical Standards
Appendix NIPR Code
Appendix II: IPR Code
Appendix III: PRSA Code
Appendix IV: IPRA Code
Contributions and Reviews


There is confusion by many who substitute public relations practice for marketing and vice versa. As a result, it is necessary to correct the wrong impression by knowing the definitions of the two management functions.

            Marketing, according to Kotler (1988) is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with one another in harmony and respect.

On his part, a pioneer of public relations and author of several publications on public relations, Sam Black (1996) defined public relations as the art and science of achieving harmony with the environment through mutual understanding based on truth and full information.

            Whereas marketing is specifically targeted at selling a product and commodity, public relations is aimed at projecting the corporate image of the entire organisation and indirectly, its products and services.

            The concepts are interrelated as they aim at satisfying the targeted public. But one difference is that, whereas marketing managers are much more bottom-line oriented, public relations practitioners see the job as communication at management level.

            Based on Kotler’s definition, the emphasis in marketing lies in human needs and wants, which vary from person to person, group-to-group, etc.  Strong desire for particular basic goods and services is normal for individuals.  A human need is described as a state of felt deprivation of some basic satisfaction.  These needs exist in the very texture of human biology and the human condition, hence its wants and desire for satisfaction for specific deeper needs.  Human wants are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions such as religion, school, families and business environment, among others. 

            Since people satisfy their needs and wants through what they desire, the desires are the service or product, which can be offered to satisfy a need and want. The terms “service” and “product” are visibly satisfying items, which cover all vehicles capable of delivering satisfaction of a want and need.

            The fact that people’s needs and wants can place values on products does not fully define marketing.    Exchange is one of the four ways in which people can obtain products they want. The four ways are self-production, coercion, begging and exchange   (Kotler 1988).

            Marketing arises from the approach to acquiring products.  Exchange is the act of obtaining desired product and service from someone by offering something in return.  It is the defining concept underlying marketing.

            Where marketing managers and public relations practitioners work in the same firm, the relationship should be mutual at advising management about public issues, public needs and demands. However, effective strategies to improve the reputation of the company and its services solely depend on the public relations man.

            The present call by big organisations for much more market-oriented public relations is appropriate, since most businesses are profit-oriented. Marketing-oriented public relations plays important roles in the launching of new products, repackaging of a product, repositioning of a company, influencing specific target groups, defending products that have encountered negative public attitude and also building the corporate image in a way that projects its products favourably.



Sales is also another process or act of selling goods, which generally intends to persuade prospective customers to buy the products in exchange for money.

            Monetary profit is the aim of all sales activities as much energy is deployed to persuade particular buyers in taking specific products. With this, only little attention is given to the reputation of producers and marketers. Public relations has enough potentials in creating a conducive environment for sales activities to take place successfully.

            Some may claim that products speak for themselves, but many firms provide relatively similar goods and services and have to seek better ways of enhancing the image of the organisation for the sole aim of improving patronage. To create a better household name for the organisation in a highly competitive environment, PR provides effective news items on the organisation’s social responsibility, reputation and its contribution to the national economy. Therefore, public relations is used in sales support to build up credibility and create goodwill for the success of such sales campaigns and promotion. 


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